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an example of parallel structure

College Prep Writing

Works Cited and In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

The following are a guide to formatting a Works Cited page and creating in-text and parenthetical citations in the style of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) See the MLA Handbook for more details and additional examples of citations.


The discussion of Works Cited and in-text and parenthetical citations in this guide should not be construed as any endorsement by or affiliation with the Modern Language Association.


Click on the following items for the content indicated.


Basics

Formatting the Works Cited page


Printed Media

  1. One author: Basic Format for a Works Cited Page Entry and an In-Text Citation

  2. Two or Three Authors

  3. Four or More Authors

  4. Two or More Works by the Same Person

  5. Different Authors with the Same Surname

  6. No Author Indicated

  7. An Organization as Author

  8. Other than First Edition

  9. Anthology

10. Introduction, Forward, Preface, Afterword

11. Magazine Article

12. A Translation

13. A Work as a Whole

14. Letter to an Editor

15. Review of a Book

16. Newspaper Article

17. Published Interview

18. Personal Interview

19. Unpublished E-mail or Letter

20. Dissertation, Unpublished

21. Book with Imprint as Publisher

22. Almanac

23. Encyclopedia

24. Book in a Foreign Language

25. Scholarly Journal Article

26. Multivolume Work

27. Republished Book


Web and Digital Media

28. Print Journal Appearing Online

29. Scholarly Journal Article as a PDF File

30. Scholarly Journal Online Only

31. Library Database, Online Journal

32. Website

33. Page on a Website

34. Online Newspaper Article

35. Online Encyclopedia

36. Magazine Online


Other Media

37. Broadcast Interview

38. Television Show

39. Film or Video Recording

40. Work of Art

41. Map or Chart

42. Repeating a Reference

43. Two or More Sources in One Parenthetical Citation


Formatting the Works Cited Page

The MLA name for a bibliography is the "Works Cited" page, and it comes at the end of an essay or other research paper. The Works Cited page is a list of resources that a writer used for information for an essay, research, or other academic report.


Format a Works Cited page with margins that are one inch on the left and right sides, not less than an inch from the bottom, and a one inch margin between the top of the page and the Works Cited title.


A header with the student's last name and consecutive page number appears on every page of an academic paper in the MLA style and continues on the Works Cited page. The student's name is a half an inch from the top of the page in the right hand corner with one-inch margin on the right.


Titles of publications and articles are capitalized. Capitalize the first word and all other words of a title, except the articles a, an, the (unless they follow a colon), prepositions, and the coordinating conjunctions and, or, nor, but, for, so, and yet.


The "Works Cited" title and each entry is followed by a double space. Works Cited page entries are in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author.


MLA recommends a hanging indent of one-half inch (13 mm) at the start of each entry as in the examples below. A teacher may specify changes to this format or recommend additional formatting specifications.


The basic format for a Works Cited entry is—author, publication, place of publication, publisher, year of publication.


The first author of a work is listed last name first, followed by first name and middle name, or middle initial if that is the way it is provided in the publication being cited.


example of works cited page


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Citations

Printed Media

1. One Author, Basic Format for a Works Cited Page Entry and an     In-Text Citation

This example of a single-author book entry in print illustrates the basic format for a citation in a Works Cited page.


List the author, last name first, followed by the first name and middle name or middle initial if it is used in the publication. Put a period after the author's name. Italicize the book title, and capitalize the first and last words and all other words of a title except the articles, a, an, and the, and coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, yet, so, for, nor. MLA recommends lowercase for ALL prepositions, such as in, at, through, and beneath.


Next, indicate where the work was published, the name of the publisher, and the year of publication. Finally, following MLA style, indicate the medium of the work, such as print, web, interview, DVD, and so on.


Punctuation is important. Put a period after the author, after the title, after the year, and after the medium of publication. A colon goes after the publication place and a comma separates the publisher and year of publication.


Works Cited page entry

    Stein, Robert Louis. The French Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century: An Old          Regime Business. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1979. Print.


In-Text Citation

In addition to a list of works that have been used for information for a research paper, an author must also indicate in the text of a paper the use of an outside source of information. This is where the in-text and parenthetical citation comes in.


A parenthetical citation comes immediately after the use of an outside source of information in the text of a paper and indicates in parentheses the author's surname and the page number of a source.


With this information, anyone can go to a Works Cited page for the title of the referenced work in order to look up and verify the information that the researcher used.


An alternative is to indicate the author of an outside source in the running text of a paper and put only the page number of the source in parentheses.


In addition, there are two ways to include in your paper information taken from a source. One is to quote the source word-for-word, and the other is to summarize or paraphrase the source.


The following is the first of four examples of in-text citation formats for a book with a single author.


The information is in quotation marks because it has been taken directly and without changes from the original source. The author and the page number where the information can be found in the source is indicated in parentheses. With the author's name, we can find the title of source on the Works Cited page. No comma or other punctuation follows the author's last name in the parenthetical citation.


Notice that punctuation, a period in this case, comes after the parenthetical citation. Note also that the parenthetical citation does not occur within the quotation marks.


1. The information here is a word-for-word quotation of the original source of information.


"Economic factors were almost certainly behind the decision of the Compagnie des Indes to renounce the exercise of its monopoly. The company suffered from a shortage of working capital and from a cash-flow problem; it was spending large sums on its slaving operations and was probably not receiving commensurate returns" (Stein 19).


2. In the following example, the author of a source is indicated in the running text of a paper and only the page number of the source from which the information is taken is put in parentheses.


This method of in-text citation is often preferable to the parenthetical citation with the author and the page number. It is less intrusive and it achieves its purpose—to allow a reader to find the referenced entry in the Works Cited page.


According to Robert Louis Stein, "Economic factors were almost certainly behind the decision of the Compagnie des Indes to renounce the exercise of its monopoly. The company suffered from a shortage of working capital and from a cash-flow problem; it was spending large sums on its slaving operations and was probably not receiving commensurate returns" (19).


3. A source may also be paraphrased or summarized, making quotation marks unnecessary. In the next example, the original source is paraphrased and the parenthetical citation includes the author and the page number of the original.


One historian speculates that it was finances that persuaded the Compagnie des Indes to relinquish any idea of monopolizing the slave trade: the company did not have the capital to support a monopoly and the slave trade did not bring in the necessary finances to sustain a monopoly (Stein 19).


4. The following example includes only a page number in parentheses because the author is indicated in the running text.


A parenthetical citation does not always appear at the end of a paragraph or sentence and end with a period. The parentheses may be followed with a colon, semicolon, or a comma within a sentence, as it does in the example in "3. Four or More Authors."


According to historian Robert Louis Stein, it was most likely for economic reasons that the Compagnie des Indes forfeited its interest in a monopoly of the slave trade: the company did not have the capital to maintain a monopoly, for one, and its slaving operations were not sufficiently profitable (19).


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2. Two or Three Authors

The following examples show how two or three authors are entered. The first author is listed surname-first name, and the others are listed first-name first. Notice that and introduces the final author. Observe the use of commas and periods.


Works Cited page entry

    Smith, Robert J., and Ella Lury Wiswell. The Women of Suye Mura. Chicago:          University of Chicago Press, 1982. Print.


    Connaughton, Richard, John Pimlott, and Duncan Anderson. The Battle for            Manilla. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1995. Print.


In-Text Citation

Cite two or three authors by last name in a parenthetical citation.

"In the old days, people said, it was not uncommon for two children to be engaged by their parents, with a view to marrying them when they grew up" (Smith and Wiswell 154).


"The Philippines had lost their capital, but the world had lost a city whose very evolution, drawing upon the cultures and histories of four different continents, had made it part of the international heritage" (Connaughton, Pimlott, and Anderson 16).


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3. Four or More Authors

When you have an outside source with four or more authors, you have a choice. You may enter the source in a Works Cited page with all of the authors, or you may enter only the first author, and follow that with et al, the Latin abbreviation for and others.


This is preferred to listing four or more authors because when a source is cited parenthetically in-text, it should follow the pattern in the Works Cited page, and four or more authors in an in-text citation can be distracting for the reader.


Works Cited page entry

    Patterson, Kerry, Joseph Grenny, David Maxfield, Ron McMillan, and Al Switzler.            Influencer: The Power to Change Anything. New York: Sterling Publishing,         1997. Print.


    Patterson, Kerry, et al. Influencer: The Power to Change Anything. 1996. New          York: Sterling Publishing, 1997. Print.


In-Text Citation

Cite the first author followed by et al. in an in-text citation when a source has four or more authors.

Kerry Patterson et al. cite psychologist Anders Ericcson who "argues that there is little evidence that people who achieve exceptional performance ever get there through any means other than carefully guided practice—perfect practice" (118): in other words, success is not genetic.


Notice that the parenthetical citation does not end a sentence in the example above. A parenthetical citation can precede a comma, a colon, or a semicolon as well as a period.

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4. Two or More Works by the Same Person

Two or more works that are by the same person are entered in alphabetical order by title. Use the person's name in the first entry and replace the name with three hyphens in successive entries by the same person.


Works Cited page entry

    Goodall, Jane. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge,             Mass.: Belknap Press-Harvard University Press, 1986. Print.


    ---. Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe. Boston:          Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Print.


In-Text Citation

When your sources include two or more works by the same author, use the author's surname followed by a comma and the short title of a work or two or three words of a long title in a parenthetical citation. Alternatively, use the author's surname and full title of the work in the running text of your research paper, and use only a page number in parentheses. In the example here, the shortened title is italicized because it represents a book title.

"Food tends to be more abundant during the lush wet season, but healthy chimpanzees have no difficult finding enough to eat during most dry seasons. Occasionally, however, crops are poor at this time and chimpanzees, particularly the old and the sick, may suffer as a result" (Goodall, Chimpanzees of Gombe 231).


Goodall reveals in The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior that the availability of food for chimpanzees, while sufficient for most of them, may not be so easily accessible for the elderly or infirm animals (231).


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5. Different Authors with the Same Surname


Works Cited page entry

    Meredith, Martin. Elephant Destiny: Biography of an Endangered Species in             Africa. 2001. New York: Public Affairs, 2004. Print.


    Meredith, Robyn. The Elephant and the Dragon: The Rise of India and China and           What It Means for All of Us. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2007.              Print.


In-Text Citation

When two authors on a Works Cited page have the same surname, include the initial of an author's first name in addition to the surname in a parenthetical citation. If the author is mentioned in the running text of a research paper, provide both the first name and surname.

"Both urban and rural Chinese have prospered, but because there is such a gap between them, the Chinese government is now facing its biggest fear: instability" (R. Meredith 33).


Robyn Meredith notes that "Both urban and rural Chinese have prospered, but because there is such a gap between them, the Chinese government is now facing its biggest fear: instability" (33).


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6. No Author Indicated

When no author is indicated for a work, enter the work alphabetically by its title in Works Cited.


Works Cited page entry

    Studies in Jainism. Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, 1997.            Print.


In-Text Citation

When no author is indicated, use a short title or two or three words of a longer title in place of the author's name in an in-text citation.

"According to the Jaina school, all existing souls are divided into two classes, the liberated (mukta) and the nonliberated (samsarin)" (Studies in Jainism 149).


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7. An Organization as Author

When a corporation, an association, a committee, or other kind of organization is the author of a work, indicate that in a citation.


Works Cited page entry

    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SPIRI). Ecological             Consequences of the Second Indochina War. Stockholm: SIPRI in            cooperation with Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1976. Print.


In-Text Citation

"The United States was loathe to commit its army to the sustained ground war (with its attendant high casualties) necessary to achieve a military victory over its enemies. Its ground force in South Viet-Nam was far too small by traditional standards (by a factor of between three and ten) to attain such an end there" (SIPRI 8).


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8. Other Than First Edition

Enter the edition number or name after the title of a book in Works Cited when the book is not the first edition. For example, a book may be a 2nd ed., 2014 ed., Rev. ed. (revised edition), or Abr. ed. (abridged edition).


Works Cited page entry

    Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.            7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2009. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "An Organization as Author" (7) for an example of an in-text citation.


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9. Anthology

Begin the citation with the editor or compiler of an anthology, followed by a coma, and then identify the person as ed. (eds.) or comp. (comps.).


Works Cited page entry

    Allen, Louis, and Jean Wilson, eds. Lafcadio Hearn: Japan's Great Interpreter: A            New Anthology of His Writings—1894-1904. Sandgate, UK: Japan Library,            Ltd., 1992. Print.


When a selection or chapter of an anthology is cited, the author and the selection start the citation. The chapters in this anthology, however, are not by individual authors, so there is no author's name to use in a citation. Put the title of a chapter first in a Works Cited page. Use quotation marks with a chapter title. The title of the anthology follows, and that is followed by the compiler or editor of the anthology, first name first, preceded by Ed. (edited by), Comp. (compiled by) or Trans. (translated by). Then enter the rest of the publication information.


Works Cited page entry

    "The Japanese Smile." Lafcadio Hearn: Japan's Great Interpreter: A New                     Anthology of His Writings—1894-1904. Ed. Louis Allen and Jean Wilson.            Sandgate, UK: Japan Library, Ltd., 1992. Print.


In-Text Citation

"Miscomprehension of the Japanese smile has more than once led to extremely unpleasant results, as happened in the case of T-, a Yokohama merchant of former days" ("The Japanese Smile" 73).


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10. Introduction, Forward, Preface, or Afterword

After the name of the author of the part of the book being referenced, name that book section: Introduction, Forward, Preface, Afterword, or other. These sections are capitalized but not italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.


Next, enter the name of the publication, and follow that by the author of the publication, given name first, preceded with "By." Complete the rest of the publication information, and after the year of publication, give the page numbers of the section of the book being referenced. In the example below, the introduction is pages xi-xx. Follow the pages with a period and then provide the medium of publication. Note that this separate entry for a section of the book is not necessary if the section is not authored by someone other than the author of the entire work. In other words, if the author of an introduction, for example, is the author of the book, merely cite the entire book. Refer to a page number of the book in an in-text citation just as you would with any other source of information.


Works Cited page entry

    Hackworth, Colonel David. Introduction. War of Numbers. By Sam Adams. South           Royalton, VT: Steerforth Press, 1994. xi-xx. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation with one author


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11. Magazine Article

The capitalized title of a magazine article is set between quotation marks. The name of the publication is italicized.


No punctuation separates the name of the publication and the date of publication—the month and year for a monthly publication. A colon comes after the date followed by the page numbers of the article, 13-15 in the first example below. Finally, the medium of the publication is print.


The difference between a monthly and a weekly magazine is only the date. For a weekly, include the day of publication in a citation: 8 Sept. in the second example.


Except for May, June, and July, names of months are abbreviated in MLA style. Volume and issue numbers are not used with magazine entries.


Use the number of the article's first page followed immediately by a plus sign (+) if the pages of the article are not consecutive. Example: 58+.


Works Cited page entry

Monthly Magazine

    Madrick, Jeff. "The Anti-Economist: The Real Lost Generation." Harper's Dec.           2013: 13-15. Print.


Weekly Magazine

    Okeowo, Alexis. "Freedom Fighter: A Slaving Society and an Abolitionist's          Crusade." New Yorker 8 Sept. 2014: 38-46. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation with one author


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12. A Translation

Indicate the name of the translator of a work after the title of a translated publication. The abbreviation "Tran." precedes the name of the translator."


Works Cited page entry

    Onoda, Hiroo. No Surrender: My thirty-Year War. Trans. Charles S. Terry. Tokyo:           Kodansha International, Ltd., 1973. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation with one author


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13. A Work as a Whole

Works Cited page entry

    Doi, Takeo. The Anatomy of Dependence. Trans. John Bester. Tokyo: Kodansha           International, Ltd., 1974. Print.


In-Text Citation

No parenthetical citation is necessary when an entire source is referenced in-text. Instead, mention the book and its author in the running text of a research paper.

An excellent source on the Japanese concept of "amaeru" is Takeo Doi's The Anatomy of Dependence.


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14. Letter to an Editor

After the name of the letter writer, enter "Letter," without italics or quotation marks, followed by a period. Notice that a local newspaper that may not be familiar to a broad audience is identified further with the name of the city where it is published. The name of the city is enclosed in square brackets. See "Newspaper Article" (16), for entering publication information.


Works Cited page entry

    Sirany, Mike. Letter. Star Tribune [Minneapolis, MN] 12 Aug. 2014: A6. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation with one author


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15. Review of a Book

If a reviewer's name is provided, start the citation with that, followed by the title of the review. Then enter "Rev. of" followed by name of the work being reviewed. Next, provide the name of the publication in which the review occurs, the date of the publication, colon, the page number of the review, and the medium of publication.


Works Cited page entry

    "Modern Asian Leaders: No Unity in Diversity." Rev. of Makers of Modern Asia, by          Ramachandra Guha, ed. Economist 30 Aug. 2014: 71. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of an appropriate parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author.


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16. Newspaper Article

Enter the author of the newspaper article, the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the newspaper, the publication date, the edition of the paper if any, the page number preceded by a colon, and the medium of publication. No period or comma follows the name of the newspaper. A comma precedes the edition of the paper.


Notice that the suffix "Jr." appears after an author's given name and is preceded by a comma. When an article cited is separated by one or pages, indicate only the first page of the article along with a + sign, such as A1+.


Works Cited page entry

    McNeil, Donald G., Jr. "Outbreak in Sierra Leone Is Tied to Single Funeral Where            14 Women Were Infected." New York Times 29 Aug. 2014, nat'l ed.: A6.              Print.


Provide the name of the city where a newspaper is published if the newspaper is not widely known outside of its place of publication, as in this example for a local newspaper: Star Tribune [Minneapolis, Minnesota]


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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17. Published Interview

An entry for a published interview starts with the name of the person interviewed. Next, provide a title of the interview in quotation marks, or italicize the title if the interview was published independently. If the interview has no title, enter "Interview" without quotation marks after the name of the person interviewed. Then add publication information and the medium of publication or broadcast.


Works Cited page entry

    Peña Nieto, Enrique. "Pact for Progress: An Interview with Enrique Peña Nieto."           Foreign Affairs Jan./Feb. 2014: 13-15. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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18. Personal Interview

The following is a sample entry for an unpublished interview. Notice that the name of the interviewee, the subject of the interview, is provided, but not the name of the person conducting the interview. Indicate the kind of interview, such as personal interview or telephone interview, and the date of the interview.


Works Cited page entry

    Harper, Comeal. Personal interview. 19 July 2014.


In-Text Citation

Use the name of the person interviewed in the running text of a paper.


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19. Unpublished E-Mail or Letter

State the author of a personal letter or e-mail, and indicate the type (such as Letter to the author) and date of the communication. End the entry with "TS" if the communication is typed. A title of a communication, if there is one, is enclosed in quotation marks and immediately follows the writer's name.


Works Cited page entry

    Sato, Hiro. Letter to the author. 20 Feb. 2014. TS


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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20. Dissertation, Unpublished

A citation for an unpublished dissertation starts with the author of the work, followed by the title of the dissertation in quotation marks. Next, indicate dissertation with the abbreviation Diss. and the name of the institution where the degree was granted; follow that with the year the degree was granted, and then the medium of the dissertation. A master's degree thesis is cited the same way, with the substitution of MA thesis, MS thesis, or other for Diss.


Works Cited page entry

    Fujita, Fumiko. "'Boys, Be Ambitious!': American Pioneers on the Japanese            Frontier, 1871-1882." Diss. City University of New York, 1988. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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21. Book with Imprint as Publisher

The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health is published by Checkmark Books, which is an imprint Facts On File, Inc. Enter the imprint as indicated in the example, separating it with a hyphen from the company of which it is an imprint.


Works Cited page entry

    Ronzio, Robert A. "Bilberry." Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health. 2nd ed.          New York: Checkmark Books-Facts On File, Inc., 2005. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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22. Almanac

An almanac, like most other reference books, comprises a list of topics in alphabetical order and, in general, without the name of an author. The page number of a topic in a reference manual may usually be omitted since topics are ordered alphabetically.


Publication information is not included with widely used reference books such as the World Almanac and Book of Facts.


Works Cited page entry

    "Somalia." World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2013 ed. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of an appropriate parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author.


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23. Encyclopedia

Reference books include encyclopedia, almanacs, dictionaries, and similar collections. Begin a citation with the author's name if it is provided. Enclose the article title in quotation marks. Next, enter the title of the encyclopedia. A specialized encyclopedia, such as the example below, is similar to an anthology, and the title of the work is followed by Ed. ("edited by") and the name of the editor. Follow that with the edition number of the encyclopedia, and the volume number.


Publication information is not included with very commonly used reference books, but the Encyclopedia of Education is a specialized reference source, and the publication data should be included, as well as the medium of publication. Notice the use of periods and commas in the sample entry.


When topics or entries are in alphabetic order in a reference source, it is not necessary to include page numbers in the Works Cited entry.

See also "Online Encyclopedia" (35).


Works Cited page entry

    Glenn, Charles L. "Immigrant Education: United States." Encyclopedia of             Education. Ed. James Guthrie. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan             Reference USA-The Gale Group, 2003. Print.


In-Text Citation

A page number is not required in a parenthetical citation for a reference work that orders entries alphabetically and does not identify an author. The author is included in the following in-text citation, however, because the author is identified in the Works Cited entry.

"After many years of essentially unrestricted admission, the United States imposed restrictions in 1882 excluding criminals, prostitutes, and the physically and mentally ill" (Glenn).


See also "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of an appropriate parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author.


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24. Book in a Foreign Language

A book in a foreign language is cited just as an English-language book is cited. If a title needs an English translation, enter it in brackets.


Works Cited page entry

    Martinez, Oscar. Los Migrantes Que No Importan: En el Camino con los             Centroamericanos Indocumentados en México. [The Migrants Nobody Cares          About: On the Road with Central American Migrants in Mexico]. Barcelona:          Icaria Editorial, 2010. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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25. Scholarly Journal Article

In the following example, seven authors contributed to the article, so et al. is used after the name of the first author. Precede et al. with a comma. The title of the article is enclosed in quotation marks. A period comes before the closing quotation mark.


The name of the journal is italicized. The article cited in the example below comes from volume 370, issue 26 of the journal, which is written 370.26. No period or comma separates the publication name and the volume and issue numbers. Indicate the issue number alone if no volume number is indicated in the journal.


Next, provide the publication year in parentheses, and follow it with a colon and the page numbers of the article. Lastly, provide the medium of publication. Notice the use of periods and commas in the citation.


Works Cited page entry

    Azhar, Esam I., et al. "Evidence for Camel-to-Human Transmission of MERS             Coronavirus." New England Journal of Medicine 370.26 (2014): 2499-2505.            Print.


In-Text Citation

"A 43-year-old previously healthy Saudi man who had retired from the military was admitted to the intensive care unit at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, on November 3, 2013, with a severe shortness of breath. Eight days before admission, fever, rhinorrhea, cough, and malaise developed, followed 5 days later by shortness of breath that gradually worsened. The patient owned a heard of nine camels that he kept in a barn until 3 days before his admission" (Azhar et al. 2499).


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26. Multivolume Work

Cite two or more volumes of a multivolume work according to the following example. The number of volumes comes after the title of the work.


Works Cited page entry

    Aberle, Msgr. George P. Pioneers and Their Sons. 2 vols. Bismarck, ND:             Tumbleweed Press, 1966. Print.


The following entry cites only one of the three volumes of a multivolume work, so including the number of volumes and the years over which they appeared is optional. Indicate the volume number after the title.


    Allen, Harold B. The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest. Vol. 1. Minneapolis:          University of Minnesota Press, 1973. Print.


In-Text Citation

Notice how volume and page numbers are cited in a parenthetical citation. If you are using only one volume as a source for your paper, cite the work as in the example that follows. If you are using more than one volume as a source, include a volume number of the source in addition to a page number in the parenthetical citation: for example, (Allen 1:25). Separate the volume and page number with a colon.

"Although the Scandinavians collectively constitute the largest element of the population of the Upper Midwest, the largest single nationality group is German." (Allen 15).


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27. Republished Book

For a book that has been republished by a new publisher, indicate the original year of publication after the title of the book. Then list the current publication information.


Works Cited page entry

    Lock, Margaret M. East Asian Medicine in Urban Japan: Varieties of Medical             Experience. 1980. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1984.          Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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Web and Digital Media

28. Print Journal Appearing Online

A print journal appearing online is cited just like a print journal. See "Scholarly Journal Article" (25). The only difference is that the medium of publication is Web instead of Print, and that is followed by the date of access.


Works Cited page entry

    Mansoori, Muhammad Tahir. "Is 'Islamic Banking' Islamic? Analysis of Current             Debate on Shari'ah Legitimacy of Islamic Banking and Finance."Islamic          Studies 50.3/4 (Autumn-Winter 2011): 383-411. Web. 8 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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29. Scholarly Journal as a PDF File

Although they are digital media and often distributed on the internet, PDF files are not truly web sources. Like a magazine article entry on a Works Cited page, the title of a journal article is set within quotation marks, and the name of the journal is italicized.


The only difference between a journal published as a PDF file and a print version is the medium. Unlike an online journal published in html format for the web, a journal published as a PDF file is usually paginated.


Works Cited page entry

    Gjongecaj, Besnik, and Pirro Veizi. "The Impact of Various Types of Tillage on the           Soil Water Availability." Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13.2          (2014): 29-40. PDF file.


In-Text Citation

See "Two or Three Authors" (2) for an example of an in-text citation for two authors.


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30. Scholarly Journal Online Only

Online journals are usually not paginated, and this is indicated with the abbreviation n.pag. The lack of pagination, the access date, and the medium of publication are the chief differences between online and print publications. A PDF file, in contrast, does not need an access date because a PDF is not expected to change.


MLA style discourages the inclusion of a URL in an entry on a Works Cited page. Many teachers, however, require students to include the URL, and if the URL is included, it follows immediately after the access date, preceded by a space, and enclosed in angle brackets < >. If a URL does not fit on a single line, break the URL after a slash or other punctuation.


Works Cited page entry

    Medina, Inés Calderon, and João Paulo Martins Ferreira. "Beyond the Border.             The Aristocratic Mobility between the Kingdoms of Portugal and León (1157-            1230)." e-Journal of Portuguese History 12.1 (2014): n.pag. Web. 8 Sept.          2014.


In-Text Citation

See "Two or Three Authors" (2) for an example of an in-text citation for two authors.


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31. Library Database, Online Journal

This is an example of a citation for a journal article accessed from a library database. The database, Expanded Academic ASAP, follows the page numbers of the article and comes before the medium of publication. The date the site was accessed by the student comes last.


Works Cited page entry

    Mousavi, Mohammad Mahdi, and Jamal Ouenniche. "The Impact of MENA             Conflicts (The Arab Spring) on Global Financial Markets."Journal of             Developing Areas48.4 (2014): n.pag. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web.             6 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

"Egypt has had a bigger effect on global markets across the various regions. The departure of the President of Egypt seems to have been received favorably by the markets of the MENA region—we find increases in the return of stock markets of the region associated with this departure." (Mousavi and Ouenniche 30).


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32. Website

Include the name of the website, the publisher of the site, the date of publication, the medium of publication, and the date of access.


Works Cited page entry

    Vlib.org. The WWW Virtual Library. 23 Sept. 2014. Web. 23 Se. 2014.


In-Text Citation

Mention the title of a website in the running text of a research paper, or the title alone in a parenthetical citation.


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33. Page on a Website

Many websites do not identify the author of a web article, but this example is an exception. Cite the site with the title of the article in quotation marks, italicized name of the website, and follow that with the publisher or sponsor of the website. Include the date the page was published or updated if available; if a date is not available, use the abbreviation for no date (n.d.). Conclude with the Web medium and the date of access.


Works Cited page entry

    Bigelow, Bill. "The People vs. Columbus, et al."zinnedproject.org. Zinn Education             Project. n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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34. Online Newspaper Article

An article in an online newspaper is cited with the name of the author, article title in quotation marks, the name of the website, the publisher, the date of publication or update, the medium of publication, and the date of access.


Notice the use of commas and periods.


Works Cited page entry

    Watson, Paul. "The Star with the Franklin Search: How the Franklin Wreck Was             Finally Found." thestar.com. Toronto Star Newspapers, Ltd., 9 Sept. 2014.             Web. 9 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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35. Online Encyclopedia

An article in an online encyclopedia is cited with author of the article, if available, the title of the article in quotation marks (in the example below, the article is also the title of a book, so it is italicized), the name of the website, the publisher of the website, the date of publication or update, the medium of publication and the date of access.


The online encyclopedia Wikipedia publishes a link for formatting a citation. Check the ready-made citation carefully for accuracy, however.


Works Cited page entry

    "King Leopold's Ghost." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free             Encyclopedia, 15 Aug. 2014. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of an appropriate parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author.


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36. Magazine Online

The article in an online magazine is cited with the name of the author, article title in quotation marks, the name of the online magazine, the publisher, the date of publication or update, the medium of publication, and the date of access.


Works Cited page entry

    Malady, Matthew J.X. "Fingerprint Words."Slate.com. Graham Holdings             Company, 11 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Se. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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Other Media

37. Broadcast Interview

An interview entry starts with the name of the interviewee. If the interview is titled, put the title within quotation marks. Use the label "Interview" or "Interview by. . .," without the quotation marks, if there is no interview title. Indicate the publication or broadcast program and the publisher or broadcaster of the interview, and the date of the interview.


The radio interview with Henry Kissinger on 6 September was accessed at the website of National Public Radio on 9 Sept. 2014.


Works Cited page entry

    Henry Kissinger. Interview by Scott Simon. Weekend Edition Saturday. Graham          Holdings Company,11 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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38. Television Show

Enter the name of a television or radio segment in quotation marks, the title of the program in italics, information relevant to the program, the network, the station if any, date of broadcast, and the medium, television.


Works Cited page entry

    "The Disappearance of Glenn Miller." History Detectives Special Investigations.          Prod/Dir. Bruce Barrow. PBS. 7 July. 2014. Television.


If a broadcast has been accessed online, provide the date the TV program was originally aired, the title of the website, Web as the medium, and date of access.


    "The Disappearance of Glenn Miller." History Detectives Special Investigations.          Prod/Dir. Bruce Barrow. PBS. 7 July. 2014. PBS.org.Web. 12 Sept. 2014.


In-Text Citation

See "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of an appropriate parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author.


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39. Film or Video Recording

When referencing an entire film or DVD, provide the title of the work in italics, the director, the distributor, the date of distribution, and the medium: DVD, Film, or other.


Works Cited page entry

    Iraq for Sale: The War Profiteers. Dir. Robert Greenwald. Brave New Films, 2006.            DVD.


To highlight a particular person involved in a film or DVD or a particular segment of a DVD, enter that first in the citation.


Works Cited page entry

    Emad Burnat and Guy Davidi, dirs. 5 Broken Cameras. 2011. Kino Lorber, 2012.            DVD.


    "Symbol of Resistance." 5 Broken Cameras. Dirs. Emad Burnat and Guy Davidi.            2011. Kino Lorber, 2012. DVD.


In-Text Citation

See "No Author Indicated" (6) for an example of a parenthetical citation that does not indicate an author, and "Two or Three Authors" (2) for an example of an in-text citation for two authors.


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40. Work of Art

Enter the name of the artist, the italicized title of the work, the year it was created, the medium used, and the location of the work.


Works Cited page entry

    Van Rijn, Rembrandt. Lucretia.1666. Oil on canvas. Minneapolis Institute of Arts,           Minneapolis, Minnesota.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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41. Map or Chart

A citation for a map follows the pattern used for citing a book. Begin the citation with the title of the map when the name of the cartographer is not available. Enter "Map," without quotation marks, after the title of the work, and then add the publisher, year of publication, and the medium of publication.


Works Cited page entry

    Rennel, Major James, FRS Engineer Surveyor General to the Honourable East            India Company.The Map of the North Part of Hindostan or a Geographical          Survey of the Provinces of Bengal, Bahar, Awd, Ellahabad, Agra and Dehli.          Map. London:Laurie and Whittle, 1794. Print.


In-Text Citation

See "One Author" (1) for an example of an in-text citation for one author.


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42. Repeating a Reference

The following Works Cited entry is a work that has been republished in a paperback edition. Enter the date of the original publication following the title.


Works Cited page entry

    Lock, Margaret M. East Asian Medicine in Urban Japan: Varieties of Medical            Experience.1980. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1984.            Print.


In-Text Citation

When a source is referenced a second time in the same paragraph of a research paper, only the page number needs to be included in the second parenthetical citation—so long as no reference to a different source comes between the first and second references to the same source.


Because of ecological differences between Japan and China, production of most Chinese medicinal herbs in Japan has not been satisfactorily successful, making it necessary to import the herbs to Japan (Lock 134). Medicinal herbs are imported by wholesalers from several countries, including Korea, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa, as well as China (146).


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43. Two or More Sources in One Parenthetical Citation

Cite two or more sources in a single parenthetical citation by separating the sources with a semicolon.


Works Cited page entry

    Goodwin, Jim. "The Etiology of Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress             Disorders."Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders of the Vietnam Veteran:          Observations and Recommendations for the Psychological Treatment of the          Veteran and His Family. Ed. Tom Williams. Cincinnati, Ohio: Disabled          American Veterans, 1980. 1-23. Print.


    Figley, Charles R. Introduction. Stress Disorders among Vietnam Veterans:            Theory, Research and Treatment. Ed. Charles R. Figley. New York:             Brunner/Mazel, Inc., 1978. xiii-xxvi. Print.


In-Text Citation

The neuropsychiatric disorders experienced by veterans of WWII were different from those experienced by Vietnam veterans because of the intrinsic differences between the war experiences (Williams 5; Figley xxii)


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